Which of the following island archipelagos is located north of the Arctic Circle?
Located north of the Arctic Circle (which begins at 66°33′ latitude north of the equator), about halfway between Norway and the North Pole at approximately 81°N latitude, the archipelago of Svalbard is made up of nine icy islands, the largest of which is called Spitsbergen. Svalbard is believed to have been first discovered in 1194, but it remained unknown to the modern world until it was rediscovered at the turn of the 16th century.
Russia, Norway, the U.S., Sweden, and the Netherlands all made competing claims on the archipelago for its coal and mineral resources, but a 1920 treaty gave possession to Norway. Fjords dominate the coastal landscape of the islands, which are home to polar bears, reindeer, Arctic foxes, and more. Svalbard is also where you'll find the world's northernmost permanent settlement, Longyearbyen.
Vestmannaeyjar, sometimes anglicized as Westman Islands, is an archipelago off the south coast of Iceland at approximately 63°N latitude.
The Stockholm archipelago is a cluster of some 30,000 islands, skerries and rocks and begins just a few minutes away from the Swedish capital city of Stockholm (approximately 59°N latitude).
The Austral Islands are in the Southern Hemisphere and the southernmost group of islands in French Polynesia, an overseas country of the French Republic in the South Pacific at approximately -23°S latitude.