9 cool facts about ice on the Earth!
Today scientists know 16 crystalline forms of ice. The last one discovered in 2009 exists under the pressure of 10,000 atm and at the temperature of -238 ⁰F (-150 ⁰C).
330 kilojoules are needed to melt down a kilogram of ice. The same amount of energy is necessary to warm up this water till 176 ⁰F (+80 ⁰C). Thanks to the high fusing temperature of ice the process of its melting and accumulation softens the Earth's climate.
1,000 kilowatts – this is an average power consumption of refrigeration equipment (or a chiller) used for making and maintaining ice at a typical ice skating arena. The warmth taken from the ice is usually used for space heating.
3,000 atm – such pressure can be created by water if it is prevented from expanding while freezing. This pressure is the reason for cracks that may appear on the roads or in different constructions.
139 ft per day (42.5 m) is the flow velocity of Jakobshavn Glacier, the fastest ice river on the Earth located in Greenland. The glacier carries out to the sea about 70 km3 of ice annually.
916.7 kg/m3 is the density of ice which is almost 8.3% less than the density of water at the same temperature. Due to this fact seas and rivers are only covered with ice and do not freeze through till the bottom.
2,900 000 km3 –this is the amount of ice in Greenland. It is almost 10% of the whole earthly cryosphere which size is about 28 million km3. By the way, there is much more ice on our planet than fresh water contained in all lakes, rivers and shallow underground reservoirs. The largest amount of ice (~ 90% or 25 million km3) is contained in Antarctica.
In 2012, Greenland lost about 375 km3 of its ice while Antarctica lost about 125 km3.
It will take approximately 2,900,000/375 = 7733 years for Greenland ice to disappear completely if the Earth’s climate remains the same as now. Antarctic glaciers are melting slower and may disappear in 200,000 years.
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