Vincent Damon Furnier was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Ella Mae (née McCart) and Ether Moroni Furnier (1924–1987). His father was a preacher in The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) headquartered in Monongahela, Pennsylvania. He has English, Huguenot, Irish, Scottish, and Sioux ancestry, and was named after one of his uncles (Vincent Collier Furnier) and the writer Damon Runyon.

Cooper would go on to form and front the Nazz, who changed their name to Alice Cooper in 1968. Fournier would legally change his name to Alice Cooper in the mid 1970's.

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