Napoléon III, also known as Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (1808–1873) was the first President of the French Republic and the last monarch of France. Made president by popular vote in 1848, Napoleon III ascended to the throne on December 2, 1852. It was the forty eighth anniversary of his uncle, Napoleon I's, coronation.
When he crowned himself as Emperor Napoleon III, the Second French Empire was born. Napoleon III ruled as Emperor of the French until September 1870, when he was captured in the Franco-Prussian War (July 1870 – May 1871).
After he was captured at the Battle of Sedan, he was deposed by the forces of the Third French Republic in Paris. The Republic was then re-created.