As of 2021, which sport was included in the Olympic program only once?
Roque is an American variant of croquet played on a hard, smooth surface. The only time that roque appeared as an Olympic sport was in St. Louis in 1904, replacing croquet. Roque was considered the cut-rate, American version of the game.
The name "roque" was suggested by Samuel Crosby of New York City in 1899, who came to it by removing the initial "c" and final "t" from "croquet." The National Croquet Association, formed in 1882, thereafter changed its name to the National Roque Association in 1899.
The rules of roque are largely similar to those of croquet, with some notable exceptions:
-In roque, a wall marks the boundary of the court off of which the ball may be caromed.
-Using the rubber side of the mallet, roque players apply spin to a ball to affect its movement, as in billiards.
Roque is still played by a small number of people in the United States. An historic roque court in Clinton, Illinois was restored to playing condition in 2013. A roque tournament is held annually in Angelica, New York.
The game is mentioned by Stephen King in his novel, "The Shining", when the main character, Jack Torrance, uses a roque mallet as a weapon.