Sharia law is the world's most widely used religious legal system. As of 2019, 35 countries adhere to it either strictly or within a system that incorporates Sharia with civil, common or customary law.

Sharia law divides crimes into offences against God ("hudud") and those against man. The former are theft, robbery, drinking alcohol, unlawful sexual intercourse, false accusation of unchastity and in some countries murder and apostasy. "Hudud" crimes cannot be pardoned by the victim or by the state; the punishments must be carried out in public. "Hudud" punishments range from public lashing to publicly stoning to death, amputation of hands and crucifixion.

Most of the Muslim countries have mixed legal systems. Sharia is incorporated into their legal framework; the Constitutions commonly refer to Sharia as the source of law. Brunei, for example, since 2014 has been implementing a "Sharia Penal Code", which includes provisions for stoning and amputation. Some countries with Muslim minorities, such as Israel, also have mixed systems that administer Sharia law for their Muslim population.

Countries with judicial systems totally based on Sharia law are as follows: Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, the Maldives, Malaysia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In Pakistan, Iran, and Iraq, it is also forbidden to enact any legislation that is antithetical to Islam.

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