South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of 1,221,037 square kilometres (471,445 square miles).

South Africa has nine provinces which vary considerably in size. The smallest is tiny and crowded Gauteng, a highly urbanised region, and the largest the vast, arid and empty Northern Cape, which takes up almost a third of South Africa’s total land area.

Each province has its own Legislature, Premier and Executive Council. The country has common boundaries with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, while Mozambique and Eswatini lie to the north-east. Completely enclosed by South African territory in the south-east is the mountain kingdom of Lesotho.

South Africa has three capitals: 1. Legislative: Cape Town, Western Cape, is where the country’s Parliament is found. 2. Judicial: Bloemfontein, Free State, is home to the Supreme Court of Appeal. 3. Administrative: Pretoria, Gauteng, is the ultimate capital of the country and is home to the Union Buildings and a large proportion of the Public Service.

The 9 provinces, are: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape

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