Modernism was a movement that encompassed philosophy, art, architecture, literature, and music. It lasted from 1910 to 1939, though it appeared to begin in the 1870s and more accurately ended in 1945, after the atomic bomb was dropped. This led to Postmodernism.

Modernism was a rejection of tradition and the Enlightenment values that had once consumed Europe. People started to feel like ideologies (religious and moral) and culture were falling apart, which went against Enlightenment ideals; Modernism embraced this fragmentation of culture. This means that Modernism can also be seen as a state of mind that continues to this day.

In art, Modernism does not represent one particular style. It valued a rejection of traditional techniques. Modernism in art meant experimenting, which led to the use of new styles, materials, and techniques.

Art movements that are a part of Modernism include Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism.

Impressionist art was an impression of a painting. This art movement is also characterized by use of light, as well as landscapes appearing as the main image.

In contrast to Impressionism, which regularly featured light brushstrokes, Fauvism featured thick brushstrokes that created a flat picture made up of fragments of shapes.

Expressionist artists have sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality.

Cubism employs geometric shapes in depictions of human and other forms.

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