All the answer options have the origins in martial activity. Of these three involve contests between pairs of combatants. Archery is a little different, because it was useful for mass armies.

The English longbow was a powerful medieval type of tall bow for archery about 1.8 metres (6 ft) long used for hunting and as a weapon in warfare. English use of longbows was effective against the French during the Hundred Years' War, particularly at the start of the war in the battles of Sluys (1340), Crécy (1346), and Poitiers (1356), and perhaps most famously at the Battle of Agincourt (1415).

Longbows were very difficult to master because the force required to deliver an arrow through the improving armour of medieval Europe was very high by modern standards. Considerable practice was required to produce the swift and effective combat shooting required. It was the difficulty in using the longbow that led various monarchs of England to issue instructions encouraging their ownership and practice, including Edward III of England's declaration of 1363:

"Whereas the people of our realm, rich and poor alike, were accustomed formerly in their games to practise archery – whence by God's help, it is well known that high honour and profit came to our realm, and no small advantage to ourselves in our warlike enterprises... that every man in the same country, if he be able-bodied, shall, upon holidays, make use, in his games, of bows and arrows... and so learn and practise archery."

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