The COP series consists of annual conferences of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. “COP” stands for “Conference of the Parties” (to the UNFCCC). In 1995 the first conference (COP 1) was held in Berlin: the picture shows Angela Merkel, then Germany’s minister of the environment, and the conference logo. The annual sequence was broken during the COVID-19 pandemic with the 2020 event being rescheduled to 2021.

All the answer options are of recent and scheduled conference locations as follows:

COP 24: Katowice, Poland (2018)

COP 25: Madrid, Spain (2019)

COP 26: Glasgow, Scotland (2021)

COP 27: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt (2022)

The results of COP 25 were disappointing. Decisions about the carbon market and emissions cuts were delayed to COP 26; the United States, Russia, India, China, Brazil and Saudi Arabia were the main opponents of these measures. However, the European Union reached an agreement about "The European Green Deal" that should lower its emissions to zero by 2050.

In an interview shortly before COP 26, climate-change activist Greta Thunberg commented "Nothing has changed from previous years really. The leaders will say 'we'll do this and we'll do this, and we will put our forces together and achieve this', and then they will do nothing. Maybe some symbolic things and creative accounting and things that don't really have a big impact. We can have as many COPs as we want, but nothing real will come out of it.”

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