The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution that was not a unified struggle, but an extended sequence of armed regional conflicts. It destroyed the Federal Army and replaced it with a revolutionary army, transformed Mexican culture, and the government. It also resulted in a new constitution that incorporated goals for which the revolutionaries fought. Although the regime of President Porfirio Díaz (1880-1911) was increasingly unpopular after 31 years, there was no foreboding that a revolution was about to break out in 1910.

Agrarian rebellions occurred, most prominently in Morelos under Emiliano Zapata. The Federal Army's inability to put down relatively small but widespread rebellions against Díaz in 1910-11 showed its essential weakness, surprising the rebels. The conflict was primarily a civil war, but foreign powers, having important economic and strategic interests in Mexico, figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role.

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