There is no evidence that Vikings used horned helmets in battle, although it is possible that horned head-dresses were used in ritual contexts. The horned and winged helmets associated with the Vikings in popular mythology were the inventions of 19th-century Romanticism. In 1876 Carl Emil Doepler created horned helmets for the first Bayreuth Festival production of Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen and has been credited with inspiring this.

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