First described by the 19th-century British anatomist Sir Alfred Poland, Poland syndrome is a unique pattern of one-sided malformations that are present at birth. Poland syndrome is noted for the underdevelopment or absence of the chest muscles on one side of the body as well as webbing of the fingers on the hand of the same side of the body. For reasons not understood, Poland syndrome is twice as likely to involve the right side of the body. This is a disorder in which affected individuals are born with missing or underdeveloped muscles on one side of the body, resulting in abnormalities that can affect the chest, shoulder, arm, and hand.

Poland syndrome consists of anatomic anomalies that include the absence of the major head muscle or absence of minor muscle such as syndactyly. Poland syndrome affects about 1 in 36,000 to 50,000 newborns, with males more likely to be symptomatic than females. Given the likelihood that Poland syndrome is often underdiagnosed and under-reported, the exact incidence is not definitely known. Patients with Poland syndrome usually present for cosmetic and aesthetic complaints and are usually asymptomatic. The physical evaluation for Poland syndrome includes an assessment of the anterior chest wall and associated limb abnormalities.

To name few : Cricketer Lewis Hatchett, Paralympian Mathew Silcocks, Olympic boxer Jerome Thomas, Golfer Bryce Molder, Actor Ted Danson, Hailey Dawson of Nevada, are all affected by the Poland syndrome.

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