This field of science presupposes researches on plants' structure, conditions of their existence, evolutionary development and origin.

The aims of ancient Botany were mostly based upon the necessity to cultivate new kinds of crops. The cause for this necessity was in a low yield of wild plants. That's why botanists were fully involved into the process of increasing the level of crop's prolificacy.

At present, Botany is also oriented towards the cultivation of new kinds of plants that will be not only the source of food but also a material for creating new medcine for humans and animals.