In director Stanley Kubrick's "A Clockwork Orange" (1971), Alex DeLarge (Malcolm McDowell), the central character, is a charismatic, antisocial delinquent whose interests include classical music (Beethoven), committing rape, theft, and what is termed "ultra-violence". He is chosen to undergo an experimental program treatment called the Ludovico's Technique, a brutal form of aversion therapy that includes Alex watching films of Nazi atrocities. The treatment causes him to become physically sick if he should even think about committing a crime. It also results in Alex disliking classical music.

Initially, when Alex is being treated, he is injected with nausea-inducing drugs while being forced to watch graphically violent films, conditioning him to become severely ill at the mere thought of doing a violent act. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated to a group of government officials and very important dignitaries, who watch as Alex collapses before a bully and abases himself before a scantily clad young woman. Although the prison chaplain accuses the state of stripping Alex of free will, the government officials on the scene are very pleased with the results. Decisions are soon made to release Alex from prison.

Because of circumstances after Alex's release, the ultimate question in "A Clockwork Orange" becomes one of whether or not Alex is really cured.

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