When did the Egyptian Monarchy exist?
In 1922 the Kingdom of Egypt was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The legal status of Egypt had been highly convoluted, due to its de facto breakaway from the Ottoman Empire in 1805, its occupation by Britain in 1882, and its transformation into a sultanate and British protectorate in 1914.
In December 1921, the British authorities in Cairo imposed martial law once deporting Zaghlul to Malta who was an Egyptian revolutionary and statesman, and the leader of Egypt's nationalist Wafd Party. Nevertheless, demonstrations against British occupation continued and led to violence. In deference to the growing nationalism and at the suggestion of the High Commissioner, Lord Allenby, the UK recognized Egyptian independence in 1922, abolishing the protectorate, and converting the Sultanate of Egypt into the Kingdom of Egypt. In line with the change in status from sultanate to kingdom, the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I, saw his title changed to King in 1922.
The kingdom was plagued by corruption, and its citizens saw it as a puppet of the British. This, coupled with the defeat in the 1948–1949 Palestine War, led to the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 by the Free Officers Movement. Farouk abdicated in favour of his infant son Fuad II. In 1953 the monarchy was formally abolished and the Republic of Egypt was established.