Illinois (Land of Lincoln) is a state in the Midwestern region of the U.S. Of the fifty U.S. states, it has the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), and a population of (12,812,508) (2020). Chicago is the state's largest city and the fifth largest city in North America with the capital in Springfield, located in the center of the state; other major metropolitan areas include Metro East (of Greater St. Louis), Peoria and Rockford.

It was admitted to the union 12/3/1818. The sitting governor is J.P Pritzker. The median household income is $65,030 (2020). The state bird is the Northern Cardinal and it official flower includes the Violet.

With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and immense farmland in the north and the center, and national resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has the highest diverse economy. Owing to its central location and geography, the state is a major transportation hub: the Port of Chicago enjoys access to the Atlantic Ocean through the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Seaway, and the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River via the Illinois Waterway.

What is now Illinois was inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous cultures, including the advanced civilization centered in the Cahokia (historical) region. The French were the first to arrive, settling near the Mississippi River in the 17th century.

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