Émile Roubaud (March 2, 1882, in Paris – September 30, 1962, in Paris) was a French biologist and entomologist known for his work on paludism, yellow fever and sleeping sickness.

In 1906-08 he worked in the French Congo, where he studied the transmission of trypanosomiasis and the role of tsetse flies. In 1909-12 he took part in a mission in Senegal, Casamance and Dahomey, where he performed research of animal trypanosomiasis. On this mission, he conducted geographical distribution studies of nine tsetse fly species.

In 1920, he and Félix Mesnil achieved the first experimental infection of chimpanzees with Plasmodium vivax.

He made his career at Pasteur Institute — from 1914 to 1958 he was a director of a research laboratory for medical entomology and pest biology at the Institute. Here, he also taught classes in medical entomology.

He was president of the Société entomologique de France in 1927 and a member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1938. In 1936 he was named president of the Société de pathologie exotique. He is a recipient of the Montyon Prize.

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