Azerbaijan is a country located mainly on the Asian portion of the Caucasus; however, its Qusar, Shabran, Siazan, Khachmaz and Quba districts are north of the Greater Caucasus Watershed, and thus geographically in Europe, placing a population of about half a million (or ca. 5% of the country's total population) in Europe. Azerbaijan became the 43rd member State of the Council of Europe on 25 January 2001.

It is a part of the South Caucasus region, and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

Azerbaijan is a predominantly Muslim country. As of January 2019, 52.8% of its total population of 9,981,457 is urban, with the remaining 47.2% being rural. 50.1% of the total population is female. The sex ratio in the same year was 0.99 males per female.

Contiguous transcontinental countries are states that have one continuous or immediately-adjacent piece of territory that spans a continental boundary, most commonly the line that separates Europe and Asia.

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