First instituted in 1879, the Calcutta Cup is awarded to the winner of the Scotland versus England match in Rugby Union's Six Nations Championship, an annual competition between the leading six nations in the sport in the Northern Hemisphere - England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, and Italy.

Although India does not have a strong rugby-playing tradition, the origins of the trophy are indeed in the sub-continent, dating back to colonial days, and expatriates competing in an event (interestingly with 20 players on each side, instead of the present-day 15) in Calcutta, now known as Kolkata. However, the resulting club was short-lived; its demise due in part to the closing of the free bar!

However, a legacy of those days is the Calcutta Cup, which is of Indian workmanship, and decorated with cobras and an elephant.

To date (February 2022) England have won the trophy 71 times, and Scotland 42 times, with 16 matches resulting in a draw. The current holders are Scotland, who defeated England 20-17 on the 5th of February 2022 at the Muirfield Stadium in Edinburgh.

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