Who is the "Head of State" of Luxembourg according to its Constitution?
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is the world's only extant sovereign Grand Duchy, a status to which Luxembourg was promoted in 1815 upon its unification with the Netherlands. It is a representative democracy with a constitutional monarchy with hereditary succession.
The Luxembourg constitution defines the Grand Duke's position: "The Grand Duke is the head of state, a symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country". Since 7 October 2000, the current head of state is Grand Duke Henri (Henri Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume, born 16 April 1955). He is the eldest son of Grand Duke Jean and Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium.
Executive power authority lies with the grand duke, who appoints the prime minister. The powers of the grand duke are primarily formal, however. Actual executive power lies with the prime minister and his ministerial council, or cabinet, who are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies. The members of this legislative assembly are elected by popular vote to 5-year terms. Voting by all adult citizens which begun in 1919, is compulsory. Justice is in the hands of magistrates appointed for life by the grand duke.
Luxembourg is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and has a small volunteer army. There is also a small paramilitary gendarmerie.