The legal tender in the exclave of Campione d'Italia is the Swiss Franc, but the Euro is widely accepted. Vehicle registration plates are not Italian, but Swiss; similarly, the telephone system is almost entirely operated by Swisscom, so calls from Italy and all other countries outside Switzerland require the international dialing code for Switzerland (+41). Mail may be sent to Campione using either a Swiss postal code or an Italian one having Switzerland or Italy as destination country respectively. Campione will formally become part of the EU customs territory in 2020.

Campione d'Italia is a comune or municipality of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino. When Ticino chose to become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1798, the people of Campione chose to remain part of Lombardy. During the wars of Italian unification, Campione petitioned Switzerland for annexation. This was rejected due to the Swiss desire for neutrality.

After Italian unification in 1861, all land west of Lake Lugano and half of the lake were given to Switzerland so that Swiss trade and transport would not have to pass through Italy. The "d'Italia" was added to the name of Campione in the 1930s by Benito Mussolini and an ornamental gate to the city was built. This was to assert the exclave's Italian character.

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