The Castle of Rocca Calascio is a mountaintop fortress in the municipality of Calascio, in Abruzzo, Italy. At an elevation of 1,460 metres (4,790 ft), the castle is the highest fortress in the Apennines which is the mountain range that runs the length of the Italian peninsula; it is likewise the highest fortress in Italy and one of the highest in all of Europe.

It dates back to the 13th century, built of stone and masonry exclusively for military purposes and intended only to accommodate troops and never as residence for nobles. From its vantage point, Rocca Calascio provides a panoramic view of the Navelli Plain and Tirino Valley. The all-consuming beauty has made this a hotspot for the filming of medieval movies; including Lady Hawke, The Name of the Rose and The Journey of the Bride.

Abruzzo is considered a region of Southern Italy in terms of its culture, language, history, and economy, though in terms of physical geography it may also be considered part of Central Italy. Almost half of the region's territory is protected through national parks and nature reserves, more than any administrative region on the continent, leading it to be dubbed "the greenest region in Europe.

It includes mainly mountainous and wild land. The mountainous land is occupied by a vast plateau, including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres (9,554 ft) the highest peak of the Apennines, and Mount Majella at 2,793 metres (9,163 ft).

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