Athena, or Athene, In ancient Greek religion, the goddess of war, handicraft, and wisdom and the patroness of Athens. Her Roman counterpart was Minerva. Hesiod told how Athena sprang in full armour from Zeus’s forehead. In the Iliad she fought alongside the Greek heroes, and she represented the virtues of justice and skill in warfare as opposed to the blood lust of Ares. She was associated with birds (especially the owl) and the snake, and she was usually represented as a virgin goddess. Her birth and contest with Poseidon for suzerainty of Athens were depicted on the Parthenon. Her birthday festival was the Panathenaea.

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