Tetris is a tile-matching puzzle video game, originally designed and programmed by Russian game designer Alexey Pajitnov. As a game, it was officially released to the public in June 1984.

Tetris was the first entertainment software to be exported from the Russia to the United States. It was published by Spectrum HoloByte in the U.S. for Commodore 64 and IBM PC. The Tetris game is a popular use of tetrominoes, the four-element special case of polyominoes. Since at least 1907, polyominoes have been used in popular puzzles. The name Polyomino was invented by the mathematician Solomon W. Golomb in 1953, and it was popularized by Martin Gardner in his November 1960 "Mathematical Games column" in Scientific American.

Specifically, the enumeration of pentominoes is dated to antiquity.

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