The "Sykes–Picot" Agreement was a 1916 secret treaty between the United Kingdom and France, with assent from the Russian Empire and Italy, to define their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in an eventual partition of the Ottoman Empire. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I and formed part of a series of secret agreements contemplating its partition. The primary negotiations leading to the agreement occurred between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, on which date the British and French diplomats, Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot, initialled an agreed memorandum. The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. However these ambitions were thwarted by the 1919-23 Turkish War of Independence.

The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations. It negated the UK's promises to Arabs regarding a national Arab homeland in the area of Greater Syria in exchange for supporting the British against the Ottoman Empire. The agreement, along with others, was exposed to the public by the Bolsheviks in Moscow on 23 November 1917 and repeated in the British Guardian on November 26, 1917. The agreement's legacy has continued to bolster mistrust among Arabs over present-day conflicts in the region.

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