Stingrays are a group of sea rays, which are cartilaginous fish related to sharks. Many species are endangered. They are classified in the suborder 'Myliobatoidei' of the order 'Myliobatiformes' and consist of eight families.

Stingrays are common in coastal tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world. Some species are found in warmer temperate oceans, and others are found in the deep ocean.

The river stingrays, and a number of whiptail stingrays (such as the Niger stingray), are restricted to freshwater.

There are about 220 known stingray species organized into ten families and 29 genera. Stingray species are progressively becoming threatened or vulnerable to extinction, particularly as the consequence of unregulated fishing.

Stingrays are not usually aggressive and attack humans only when provoked, as when a ray is accidentally stepped on. Contact with the stinger causes local trauma (from the cut itself), pain, swelling, muscle cramps from the venom, and later may result in infection from bacteria or fungi.

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