The 'Xoloitzcuintli' or 'Xolo' for short, is a hairless breed of dog, found in toy, miniature, and standard sizes. The 'Xolo' also comes in a coated variety and coated and hairless can be born in the same litter and are also known as the Mexican Hairless.

The breed ranges in size from about 10 to 55 lb (4 to 25 kg), with a sleek body, almond-shaped eyes, large bat-like ears, and a long neck, the Xolo is notable for its dominant trait of hairlessness. The dominant hairless trait originated in this breed as a spontaneous mutation thousands of years ago.

A 1999 genetic study using DNA sequences of the 'Xoloitzcuintle' were identical to those of dogs from the Old World, and did not support a New World domestication for this breed. Despite the Xolo's more than 3000-year history in Mexico, the breed did not receive any official notice in its homeland until the 1950s.

'Xolos' were among the first breeds recorded by the American Kennel Club (AKC).

In 1959, the Xolo was dropped from the AKC stud book due to the breed's scarcity and perceived extinction. 'The Xoloitzcuintli Club of America' (XCA) was founded in October 1986 to regain AKC recognition for the breed.

Their very high intelligence, sensitivity, high energy, inquisitiveness, strong hunting, and social instincts is apparent because the breed's temperament was not modified overall by selective breeding in their native history in Mexico.

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