'El Niño' is the warm phase of the 'El Niño Southern Oscillation' (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.

The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. 'El Niño' is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. 'El Niño' phases are known to occur close to four to seven years.

During the development of 'El Niño', rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific.

Developing countries that depend on their own agriculture and fishing, particularly those bordering the Pacific Ocean, are usually most affected. In American Spanish, the capitalized term 'El Niño' means "the boy".

In this phase of the Oscillation, the pool of warm water in the Pacific near South America is often at its warmest about Christmas. The original name of the phase, El Niño de Navidad, arose centuries ago, when Peruvian fishermen named the weather phenomenon after the newborn Christ. 'La Niña', chosen as the "opposite" of 'El Niño', is American Spanish for "the girl".

More Info: en.wikipedia.org