Romanian inventor Petrache Poenaru received patent from the French government for a fountain pen which had a barrel made from a large swan quill. In America in 1848, Azel Storrs Lyman got a patent for a fountain pen with “method of supplying ink to pens from a reservoir in the handle”. These were not the only patents for fountain pens of that time but these pens needed three inventions to become popular: iridium-tipped gold nib, hard rubber, and free-flowing ink (early fountain pens didn’t understand the role that air pressure plays in the operation of pens). First fountain pen to have all this was made in 1850s. All these pens were filled with an eyedropper. First self-filling fountain pens were invented in the early 20th century. They were crescent-filler pens (which had a rubber sac and a crescent button which pressed it) and twist-filler pens.All these early fountain pens had a characteristic to leak so some manufactures tried to solve this problem. Some variants had a retractable point which closed the ink reservoir. Other had screw-on caps with inner caps that sealed around the nib. Improvements continued after that. Pens were made from celluloid instead of hard rubber, filling mechanisms were made with pistons and levers, and solid-ink fountain pens appeared. In type fountain pens became a status symbol after ballpoint pens became cheap and easier to use variant.

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