The name "Gaul" is the name with which Germanic tribes called the territory today known as France. The name stems from the Germanic word *walhaz, "foreigners". Cognates of this words are "Wales", "Wallachia", "Wallonia" and "Cornwall", all meaning "foreigners' land".

The Romans called the country as Gallia. While the names "Gaul" and "Gallia" are superficially similar, they come from different stems (compare "Austria" and "Australia"). Name "Gallia" means literally "land of the roosters" in Latin, but it refers to Celts (gall). The Greeks call France even today as "Gallia". It is cognate to "Galatia", "land of the blondes" as the Celts were fair-haired compared to the darker complexion of the Mediterranean peoples.

The name "Gaul" superseded "Gallia" in the English language already in the Anglo-Saxon era, as did "Wales" supersede Latin "Cambria". The Jutes, Angles and Saxons were Germanic peoples themselves.

The name "France" refers to the tribe of Franks, who conquered Roman Gallia in the 5th century and founded their kingdom there.

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