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What are the (seemingly) dumbest military tactics used that actually worked?

The Battle of Austerlitz, 1805

The Battle of Austerlitz is widely regarded as Napoleon’s greatest victory. The battle saw Napoleon facing off against a numerically superior Russian-Austrian Army. In order to win the battle though, Napoleon had to use a fairly dumb strategy.

Prior to the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon had been on a campaign across the Austrian empire. He had conquered most of Southern Germany at the decisive Battle of Ulm in 1805.

Then he advanced his troops to the Austrian capital of Vienna. The Austrian Emperor and his army fled into the hands of the Russians where the two began preparations for an attack to expel Napoleon from Vienna.

In total the Russians and Austrians had between 85,000 and 90,000 soldiers, of which most were Russian. The alliance was receiving more troops by the day, and with the homefield advantage they expected to crush Napoleon. The longer they waited, the better their position became, so they had no interest in defeating Napoleon just yet.

Napoleon by contrast was far from home, his supply lines were stretched thin and dangerously exposed through the Austrian countryside. He didn’t have many reinforcements within the area nor did he have many allies. His total forces numbered between 68,000 and 75,000 soldiers. Napoleon needed to defeat his enemy soon, before they became more powerful. But he needed to give them a reason to attack him… so he began to devise a plan.

Napoleon knew of the massing Russian and Austrian army, so he marched his troops from Vienna north into Moravia, leaving around 7,000 soldiers plus a garrison behind in the city.

He found a spot near the town of Austerlitz that he hoped to do battle, and occupied the Pratzen Heights which was a large hill in the region that gave a commanding view of the surrounding area.

The heights would surely give whoever holds them a massive advantage. In warfare, one can never understate the importance of high ground advantage. Napoleon knew if he wanted to win the battle he would need the heights.

According to Sun Tzu in The Art of War: “All armies prefer high ground to low”

After the enemy army approached to check his position, however, they observed in astonishment as Napoleon actually abandoned the heights. The Austrian and Russian commanders were baffled as to why Napoleon would abandon his only shot at winning.

To the enemy this appeared to be the dumbest move he could have made. Even to the modern observer there really was no military advantage Napoleon gained by doing this, he literally gave the enemy a better starting position in the battle. What the enemy failed to realize though was that Napoleon didn’t abandon the heights to gain a military advantage. He abandoned the heights to gain a psychological advantage.

Napoleon wanted to give the enemy false confidence, and lure them into attacking him, he knew they would never attack him on the heights, so he purposely gave them the high ground.

The Austrians and Russians quickly occupied the Pratzen heights, which Napoleon had left for them, and eventually were lured into an attack.

They noticed that Napoleon’s right flank was incredibly weak, so they determined that they would focus the brunt of their attack on that.

The battle began with a low hanging fog across the battlefield, on the morning of December 2, 1805. The allies began the attack by focusing on the right flank. They deployed almost half of their troops on this one flank, with the goal of overwhelming the weakly defended French position.

The French defenders fought viciously, there was a small village on the flank that saw brutal hand to hand combat throughout the battle. As Napoleon’s troops in the village began to lose their ground, one of Napoleon’s commanders arrived from Vienna with the troops that Napoleon had left behind. These troops had been on a multi day forced march, and arrived just in time to plug the hole in Napoleon’s right flank.

The Russians saw this and repositioned some troops from the center, on the Pratzen heights, to the right flank.

This was the opportunity Napoleon had been waiting for. Early in the morning Napoleon had concealed two entire divisions of soldiers at the base of the heights. They were hidden by fog and were unseen by the Russian commanders at the top of the heights.

With the Russian center weak, Napoleon commenced an artillery barrage, followed by a charge up the heights by French infantry.

The infantry charged up the hill and after a clash of bayonets and fierce hand to hand combat, expelled the Austrians and Russians from the heights. Napoleon had reoccupied the heights. Now Napoleon could win the battle. As he had predicted earlier, the key to winning the battle was the heights.

After this the battle continued, though with the heights now on his side, Napoleon was at a clear advantage. He made masterful use of his heavy cavalry to expel attempts to retake the heights.

(Credit to Jules Gillespie for finding this picture of Napoleon’s cavalry charge at Austerlitz, actual painting by Keith Rocco)

Then using the heights, he commenced a two pronged assault on the remaining enemy attacking his right flank, routing them and forcing the Russians and Austrians to surrender.

There is a reason Napoleon is widely regarded as one of the greatest military commanders ever, and this battle…. this is one of the reasons why.

Napoleon made a seemingly rookie mistake by abandoning the heights, but in doing that he tricked the enemy into attacking him. Almost everything in this battle went Napoleon’s way.

He deliberately weakened his right flank so that the Russians would divert troops from the heights to attack it. He deliberately hid troops at the base of the heights with the goal of using them to retake the high ground. He purposely left thousands of troops in Vienna so that they could arrive at the last minute to save his right flank from disaster. Everything about this battle was oriented towards the Pratzen Heights, the very heights that Napoleon had seemingly abandoned for no reason.

In retrospect was this a dumb strategy? No, but the genius behind it is that this strategy looked dumb to the enemy. That’s all that mattered to Napoleon.


This information was taken from Quora. Click here to view the original post.

Have you ever heard about the Battle of Austerlitz? Do you agree it was one of the dumbest military operations?

#History #Quora

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What are your thoughts on this subject?
15 Comments
James Klingenberg
I knew Austerlitz was a great triumph for Napoleon, but I didn’t know how he did it : kind of like a tactical shell game.
1
Aug 26, 2019 9:37PM
socialworkerrswa
I didn't know this about Napoleon . We never really studied him in school
1
Aug 5, 2019 11:13AM
Clarence Quismundo
With all his military brilliance, he could not defeat the Duke of Wellington.
2
Jul 25, 2019 6:14AM
la
la
Interesting strategy, one might think it's the dumbest move but obviously Napoleon thought it was a smart move....but the way it seems he didn't know what he was doing as he was doing what he did....but seems as he was making the dumbest move a light came on and he decided it was the right move after all....or just the luckiest guy ever SMH.....LMAO
0
Jul 24, 2019 6:20PM
James G. Brophy
Could also be referred to as “got lucky”
0
Jul 23, 2019 11:27PM
Cheryl McMeekin
Interesting strategy
1
Jul 23, 2019 5:31PM
hector tubens
Interesting information. Learn something new everyday.
2
Jul 23, 2019 2:38PM
thevoyers
I’m not sure about many of the world’s battles, but man does come up with many ways to harm and destroy one another! The biggest crazy military campaign that comes to mind is The Trojan Horse!
2
Jul 23, 2019 10:20AM
jack patti go
No comment!
0
Jul 23, 2019 1:28AM
Will Boyd
Napoleon was more than lucky, he was daring! His mistakes were of his overreach of power, not of commanding a battlefield. His main overreach was specifically his invading Russia in 1812. If he had not retired for two hours during the battle of Waterloo, due to his progressing stomach cancer and the accompanying pain, he would have beaten the British and Ney would not have attacked them with Calvary without infantry as Napoleon would have had none of it!
1
Jul 22, 2019 9:00PM
Jo Weston
Very glad that Hitler wasn,t as smart.
1
Jul 22, 2019 7:25PM
Lynne Zeman
Great tactical maneuver. And a very through and well written description. Thanks!
2
Jul 22, 2019 6:49PM
Ilias Tsiabardas
Thank you for your information I didn't know that one !!!
0
Jul 22, 2019 4:42PM
Lauri Kauppinen
Would've been a better article if it wasn't just the one battle . The headline banner indicates there was more than one battle story ,not just Napoleon's famous battle.
0
Jul 22, 2019 4:41PM
Kinie Bonnet-Schuur
Who “invented” the name “Batavian Republic” for the Netherlands?
1
Jul 22, 2019 4:32PM

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